Hamburgers contain several vitamins, most of which belong to the B family. The B vitamins are needed to turn food into energy and for the development of red blood cells. The most abundant B vitamin in hamburgers is vitamin B-12, with 2.5 micrograms, which is 100 percent of the recommended daily intake for adults. Though all B vitamins are essential for good health, a deficiency of B-12 can cause serious side effects such as anemia, numbness, weakness and central nervous system problems such as foggy thinking and loss of balance. Other B vitamins in hamburgers include B-6, niacin, riboflavin, pantothenic acid, thiamin and folate. Hamburgers also contain trace amounts of vitamins E and K.
Hamburgers are packed full of minerals, with zinc being the most abundant. A 3-ounce burger contains 5.4 milligrams of zinc, or 36 percent of the daily value established by the USDA, according to the National Institutes of Health. Zinc plays several roles in the body, including aiding the formation of blood cells, supporting metabolism and boosting the immune system. Other beneficial minerals in hamburgers include selenium, phosphorous, iron, potassium, magnesium, sodium, copper, calcium and a trace of manganese and fluoride.