Myelination is believed to play an important role in intelligence. Research has shown that people with more white matter have higher IQs.
Oligodendrocytes also provide stability and carry energy from blood cells to the axons.
The term “myelin sheath” may be familiar to you because of its association with multiple sclerosis. In that disease, it’s believed that the body’s immune system attacks the myelin sheaths, which leads to dysfunction of those neurons and impaired brain function. Spinal cord injuries may also cause damage to myelin sheaths.
Other diseases believed to be associated with oligodendrocyte dysfunction include: