As Rothhammer and colleagues point out, their experimental observations might lead to new therapeutic approaches to quelling unwanted CNS inflammation, and possibly to supporting neuronal repair. First, enhancement of TGF-α and blockade of VEGF-B might reduce CNS inflammation to an acceptable, non-toxic level. Second, clinical CNS inflammation could be dampened indirectly by means of the gut. Dietary protocols that promote anti-inflammatory regulation could be a promising non-invasive approach to treating brain inflammation. It is to be hoped that diets that have been proposed as effective medications for diseases such as MS, but whose effectiveness has yet to be formally proved17, will now be re-examined.