“Aw, you still have your baby fat!” This refrain plagued me throughout my childhood. No matter what I did, I couldn’t shake my “baby fat.” I was not a particularly overweight child. I just seemed to maintain the round cheeks and pudgy tummy that most of my friends shed early on. “Oh, sweetheart, don’t worry,” my mother would say, “it will keep you warm. Just a little added insulation.” She wasn’t even half right.
In the years since, I’ve become an anthropologist who studies nutrition, human growth, and development. And, as it turns out, I wasn’t the only one who carried a few extra pounds. Humans are the fattest species on record at birth. A baby human is born with about 15 percent body fat—a higher percentage than any other species in the world. Only a small number of other mammals make it into the double digits at birth: about 11 percent for guinea pigs and around 10 percent for harp seals, for example. Even our nearest primate relatives are not born as fat as we are.
Most of the fat animal babies we think of—seal pups, piglets, and puppies—gain much of their fat after birth. This is true for all of our fellow mammals, whether they are much smaller than us or much larger. But human babies keep on gaining fat too. Infant fatness peaks between 4 and 9 months of age at about 25 percent before it begins a long slow decline. This period of baby fat thinning leads to a stage in childhood when most humans have the lowest body fat percentage they will have in their lives, unless of course you’re one of the not-so-lucky ones. So just why is it that human babies are born with so much fat?
Like my mom, many scholars have proposed that a thick layer of fat helps keep babies warm. But there isn’t much evidence that supports this theory. We don’t observe greater levels of body fat in populations that live in colder climates, and putting on layers of fat doesn’t seem to help us deal with the cold. Fat is critical to our warmth—it just doesn’t serve us by working only as insulation.
There are actually two kinds of fat: white fat, the normal fat we all know and love, and brown fat, also known as “brown adipose tissue,” or BAT. BAT is a special kind of fat that’s present in all neonatal mammals and is especially important in humans, who are unable to raise their body temperature through shivering. BAT generates heat by burning white fat and serves as a baby’s internal “furnace.” As infants and children develop, BAT begins to shrink until there is very little left in adulthood. Unfortunately for my mom, BAT only composes about 5 percent of an infant’s total body fat.
So, if it’s not for warmth, what does all that baby fat do?