(a) Energy-status analyses of ATP, ADP, AMP, NAD and NADH with the related metabolite ratios ATP/AMP, ATP/ADP, ADP/AMP, and NADH/NAD. *p ≤ 0.05; **p ≤ 0.01. P-values were determined by Student’s t-test. Error bars represent s.e.m. N = 5 per group. (b) Western Blotting analyses of markers for GR and OR and proteins involved in the cellular energy metabolism. IMR90 cells were subjected to OR, GR and OGR for 24 h. After that cells were harvested and total cell lysate was analyzed using Western blotting and immunodetected with indicated antibodies. Tubulin was used as a loading control. For the densitometric quantification of the immunoreactive bands the absolute values measured were first normalized to tubulin and the resulting values to the control, which was set as 1. #≤ 0.10, *p ≤ 0.05; **p ≤ 0.01, ***p ≤ 0.001. P-values were determined by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with post-hoc Tukey honestly significant difference (HSD) test. Error bars represent s.e.m. N = 3 per group. (c) Autophagic degradation activity analyses upon OR, GR and OGR compared to control measured by Western blotting analyzing LC3 and LC3-II protein levels and LC3-II protein turnover with and without BafA. The autophagic degradation activity (autophagic flux) was determined by the following calculation: ΔLC3-II = ‘LC3-II + BafA’ – ‘LC3-II – BafA’. Tubulin was used as a loading control. #≤ 0.10, *p ≤ 0.05, **p ≤ 0.01. P-values were determined by one-way ANOVA with post-hoc Tukey HSD test. Error bars represent s.e.m. N = 3 per group.